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Flashcards - TExES Life Science: DNA Transcription & Translation

Flashcards - TExES Life Science: DNA Transcription & Translation
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repressor
In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers
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operons
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter
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gene expression
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product
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tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
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messenger RNA
Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression
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translation
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins
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transcription
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
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transcription
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
translation
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins
messenger RNA
Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression
tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
gene expression
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product
operons
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter
repressor
In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers
genetic code
The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded within genetic material is translated into proteins by living cells
structural genes
A structural gene is a gene that codes for any RNA or protein product other than a regulatory factor
gene
Gene were an English alternative rock quartet that rose to prominence in the mid-1990s
antisense strand
In molecular biology and genetics, sense is a concept used to compare the polarity of nucleic acid molecules, such as DNA or RNA, to other nucleic acid molecules
promoter
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene
Regulation of gene expression
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products , and is informally termed gene regulation
polypeptide
Peptides are biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds

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